DEFICIENCY OF CURRENT METHODS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF FILTRATION STABILITY OF ROCK-FILL WATERWORKS IN MINING
The article reviews the methods of filtration stability improvement at rock-fill waterworks connected with the use of special structural elements of the latter, improvement of filtration characteristics of the water works material and the use of special anti-leakage materials. The characteristic features of the described methods are revealed. An emphasis is laid on the features connected with the scale of the discussed methods. It is found that, given the loss of filtration stability is of local nature in the majority of waterworks, the current methods are technologically and economically unpractical. By way of illustration of local filtration stability loss, a tailings dam at a processing plant in the Murmansk Region is studied. The long-term in situ observations discover spasmodic behavior of deformation in the form of long stable-state periods and short-duration distortions. The identified deformation mechanism is connected with the loss of filtration stability. Water seepage in the dam body gradually washed fine particles out of local areas in the dam, and the resultant zone with low filtration characteristics became a concentration of water flow through the dam. Heavier flow kept washing out the dam material, which ended with the formation of a filtration channel. As a consequence of the dam material washing-out, voids were formed in the filtration channel, which grew and reached a critical size. After that local slip took place, and upper-lying layers fell into the formed voids. It is inferred that the existing methods of filtration stability improvement are unpractical for elimination of local failures. In connection with this, it is advisable to develop a new method aimed to preclude such local losses of filtration stability as filtration channels.
: Maksimov D. A.
Maksimov D.A., Researcher, e-mail: email@example.com,
Mining Institute of Kola Scientific Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences,
184209, Apatity, Russia.Key words
Rock-fill waterworks, tailings ponds, dams, embankments, filtration stability, methods of improvement of filtration characteristics, leakages, deformation.References
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